One-arm hop test: Reliability and effects of arm dominance

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Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy


Objectives: To determine the reliability of the one-arm hop test and the effects of upper-extremity dominance on test scores for 2 athletic groups. Background: Limited information is available regarding functional performance tests of the upper extremity that involve axial loading. Methods and Measures: Thirteen male collegiate wrestlers (mean age, 20.3 ± 1.6 years) and 13 male collegiate football players (mean age, 20.0 ± 1.7 years) without upper-extremity pathology participated in the study. Subjects were trained to perform the one-arm hop test, starting from a one-arm push-up position and then hopping as quickly as possible onto and off of a 10.2-cm platform 5 times. Subjects returned to the test site 1 to 2 days later and were timed for 2 trials of the one-arm hop test for each upper extremity. Results: Within-session ICC2, 1 reliability values were 0.78 for the football players and 0.81 for the wrestlers. Mean absolute differences between trials were 0.64 seconds for the football players and 0.47 seconds for the wrestlers. Trial 2 performance times were significantly faster than trial 1 times for the wrestlers. Although performance time for the nondominant side was on average 4.4% slower than that of the dominant side, performance times for the dominant side were not significantly different from those of the nondominant upper extremities. Conclusions: The results provide preliminary evidence that the one-arm hop test may be a reliable upper-extremity functional performance test with sufficient training of the subject. Uninjured upper-extremity performance for the one-arm hop test may be useful as a basis for comparing performance of an injured contralateral upper extremity.

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