Using the health belief model to predict concussion-reporting intentions and behaviour

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Brain Injury


Purpose: To determine whether Health Belief Model (HBM) factors predict concussion-reporting intentions and behaviour. Methods: Participants completed a cross-sectional survey to measure the HBM constructs of concussion knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action. We also asked participants to indicate their concussion-reporting intentions and behaviourfor symptom and concussion reporting. Four separate multivariable regressions were conducted to predict concussion-reporting intentions and behaviour based on HBM constructs. Results: Cues to action (β = 0.25, p= .016) predicted symptom reporting intentions (F7,318 = 4.44, p< .001, R2 = 0.089), while perceived benefits (β = 0.12, p= .018), perceived barriers (β = −0.11, p= .034) and cues to action (β = 0.29, p< .001) predicted concussion-reporting intentions (F7,318 = 11.34, p < .001, R2 = 0.200). The HBM did not predict symptom or concussion-reporting behavior (symptom: Χ2 = 5.51, p= .138, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.096; concussion: Χ2 = 5.20, p= .157, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.159). Conclusions: Strategies to reduce perceived barriers and increase benefits of reporting concussion symptoms may improve reporting intentions. This may include cues to action in sharing a positive view toward long-term health and dispelling that reporting a concussion would let down teammates.

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