Masculinity, optimism bias, and perceived pressure from stakeholders influence on student-athlete concussion reporting intentions and behavior

Document Type


Publication Title

Journal of American College Health


Objective: Determine how a) masculinity, b) optimism bias, and c) perceived pressure from stakeholders predict concussion reporting intentions and behavior. Participants: Collegiate student-athletes (n = 369). Methods: Student-athletes completed surveys of Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (nine sections), optimism bias (optimist, neutral, pessimist), perceived pressure from stakeholders (six stakeholder sections), reporting intentions (symptom and concussion), and behavior (symptom and concussion). Four separate stepwise multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Results: A one-point increase in playboy, heterosexual self-preservation, being neutral or optimist compared to a pessimist symptom reporting intention decreased. A one-point increase in sport primacy, perceived pressure from athletic administration, being neutral or optimist compared to pessimist concussion reporting intentions increased 0.05, and decreased 0.23, 0.35, and 0.32, respectively. A one-point increase in violence and playboy increased the odds of being a “non-reporter” by 30% and 40%. Conclusions: Pessimistic views regarding concussion risks may result in greater concussion reporting intentions, however these findings did not influence behavior.



Publication Date


This document is currently not available here.